Integrating Processors and Reconfigurable Logic
Several research efforts have begun to look at the issues associated with
coupling processors and reconfigurable logic on a single die. On this
page, we collect pointers into the various efforts.
- PRISM -- PRISM is, perhaps, the earliest work looking directly
at Processor and FPGA cooperation on computing tasks. Peter Athanas'
deals with compilation for mixed architectures and touches briefly on
- DPGA-coupled Microprocessors -- André DeHon's FCCM'94
is one early description of the concept along with the motivation for
coupling the two units -- but the paper is weak on details and costs. A later
technical report [PS]
catalogs architectural options for integration. His more
recent work (e.g. [TR blurb]) has begun to quantify some of the areas
and costs which were missing from the earliest work.
- PRISC -- Razdan and Smith developed a system to automatically
extract code for an integrated reconfigurable accelerator from
conventional processor executables.
- Cypris Crypto Processor -- Lockheed Martin/NSA developed an encryption
processor [may need netscape to view properly] which features an
integrated PLA structure for high-speed, programmable, cryptographic
- OneChip -- Ralph Wittig developed a detailed architecture
for such an integrated systems and explored a number of application
documentation] Paul Chow and Jeff Jacob continue to evolve that
architecture. The most notable addition is memory address scoreboarding to
support blocked memory to memory operations.
- Garp -- Garp is a microprocessor core with a programmable gate
array coprocessor, integrated on the same chip under development at UC
- Chimaera -- Chimaera is a reconfigurable functional unit in the
spirit of the PRISC reconfigurable PFU, under develpment at Northwestern.
[overview and paper
- NAPA -- NAPA couples National Semiconductor's CLAy array with
a RISC processor core for use in embedded signal processing applications.
Semiconductor ACS Web Page]
- Triscend E5 -- reconfigurable cells with a microcontroller to
provide customizable peripherals and interfacing. [Triscend E5
Docs] A recent announcement indicates an ARM-based reconfigurable
processor is in the works.
- Modeling -- Albaharna Osama has a series of papers [ISCAS'94]
[ICCD'94] [FCCM'96] modeling the area-time costs/benefits for processors
and reconfigurable architectures. [email <firstname.lastname@example.org>]
- RISC+FPGA case study -- Pramod Viswanath and Sriram Rajamani did a
quantitative case study on the effects of several processor-reconfigurable
array interface issues. [Project Report Page]
To see this in context, see the relevant lecture slides from CS294-6: Reconfigurable
This summary is intentionally limited to systems which tightly couple the
processor and the reconfigurable array resources -- mostly focusing on
cases where the two are integrated on the same die.
See Steve Guccione's list of
FPGA-based Computing Machines, for a more general collection of
FPGA-based computing computing machines.
See Scott Hauck's ``The Roles
of FPGAs in Reprogrammable Systems'' for an in depth review of many,
contemporary, multi-FPGA systems.
Before we had modern FPGA technology, a few early pioneers were already
exploring the benefits of these mixed processor and programmable logic
- Gerald Estrin -- FIXED + VARIABLE computer [IEEE Trans. on Electronic
Computers, v12, p747-754,755-773, 1963] [Proc. of the Wester Joint
Computer Conference, p. 33, 1960]. A scanned copy of one of the original
technical reports is available from UCLA.
- Mario Schaffner [IEEE Trans. on Computers, v27, n12, p1015-1028, 1978]